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WROCLAW, POLAND, EUROPEAN CAPITAL OF CULTURE 2016 WROCŁAW, EUROPEJSKA STOLICA KULTURY
"Wroclaw is a very big city on the Odra river, with splendidly decorated public and private buildings." Enea Silvio Bartolomeo Piccolomini, Pope Pius II (1458 -1464)
Och, Wrocławiu, Europejska Stolico Kultury 2016 (ESK), jak cudownym jesteś miastem!
Oh! Wroclaw, Poland, European Capital of Culture 2016, ESK, what a wonderful city you are!
Fine Art Photography by Zbigniew Halat
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Some medical epidemiology data on fertility, sorry for that, but:
culture of compensatory fertility - the last chance for Europe
kultura dzietności wyrównawczej - ostatnia szansa dla Europy
kultura vyrovnávací plodnosti - poslední šance pro Evropu
Kultur der kompensierenden Fertilitäts - die letzte Chance für Europa
Wroclaw, Poland, European Capital of Culture 2016, is instrumental in promoting compensatory fertility to protect indigenous peoples of Europe from extinction and diverse European cultures from disappearance.
Wrocław, Europejska Stolica Kultury 2016, pełni podstawową rolę w propagowaniu płodności wyrównawczej, aby uchronić rdzenne ludy Europy przed wyginięciem, a różnorodne kultury europejskie przed zanikiem.
dr Halat, medical epidemiology consultant
Total fertility rate, Poland, 1950 – 2014, total, urban, rural areas. Total fertility rate is computed as the mean number of children that would be born alive to a woman during her lifetime if she were to pass through her childbearing years (generally defined as 15-49). 2.1 is the treshold of sub-replacement fertility. Source of numerical data: Central Statistical Office of Poland (GUS)
Total fertility rate, Slavic Countries, data available January 2016: Bulgaria (BG), Czech Republic (CZ), Croatia (HR, Poland (PL), Slovenia (SI), Slovakia (SK), Montenegro (ME), Serbia (RS), Macedonia (MK). No other data were provided by the EU source. Additionally: Hungary (HU), and Romania (RO). Source: European Commission, Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety.
Total fertility rate, The EU Big Six, data available January 2016: Germany (DE), Spain (ES), France (FR), Italy (IT), Poland (PL), United Kingdom (UK).Source: European Commission, Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety.
The human ovary contains a fixed number of non-growing follicles (NGFs) established before birth that decline with increasing age culminating in the menopause at 50–51 years. Women with an average age of menopause will have around 295,000 NGFs present at birth per ovary, with women destined to have an earlier menopause having around 35,000 NGFs and late menopause women having over 2.5 million NGFs per ovary at birth. The average girl will have three hundred thousand to four hundred thousand eggs at the time of puberty. An average of one thousand will die every month, and only one of those thousand every month is destined to ovulate. For 95% of women by the age of 30 years the percentage NGF population is already 12% of the initial reserve and only 3% of the reserve remains at 40 years of age. Most women underestimate the extent to which age affects their ability to conceive naturally. 81% of the variance in NGF populations is due to age alone, further analysis demonstrated that 95% of the NGF population variation is due to age alone for ages up to 25 years. The remaining 5% is due to factors other than age e.g. smoking, BMI, parity and stress. We can speculate that as chronological age increases, factors other than age become more important in determining the rate at which NGFs are lost through apoptosis. WHB Wallace, Kelsey TW (2010) Human ovarian reserve from conception to the menopause PLoS One; 5(1):e8772